The plants we know as beets are in the same family as chard. While chard is grown for its leaves, beets were traditionally grown from their bulbous roots. However, all parts of the beet plant are edible. All types of beets and chard will cross-pollinate with one another.
Beets are not quite as cold tolerant as something like broccoli, but they can tolerate a light frost and they do like cool temperatures, so beets are generally grown in the spring or fall.
Beets are biennial. They will not flower until their roots have matured and they’ve had at least 1 month of cold temperatures.